Saturday, February 14, 2009

Land forms

lambak
lamb´ak n. valley

gulod
gul´od n. hill top

burol
bur´ol n. hill

bundok
bund´ok n. mountain

patag
p´atag kapat´agan (ka-an) n. plain, lowland adj. smooth, level, even

anyong lupa
Kapatagan — isang lugar kung saan walang pagtaas o pagbaba ng lupa, patag at pantay ang lupa rito. Maaaring itong taniman ng mga palay,mais,at gulay.
• Bundok — isang pagtaas ng lupa sa daigdig, may matatarik na bahagi at hamak na mas mataas kaysa burol.
• Bulkan — isang uri ng bundok sa daigdig na kung saan ang tunaw na bato ay maaaring lumabas dito mula sa kailaliman ng daigdig. May dalawang uri ng bulkan, una ang tinatawag na tahimik na kung saan matagal na hindi ito sumasabog, tulad ng Bulkang Makiling na matatagpuan sa lalawigan ng Laguna; at ang ikalawang uri naman ay aktibo na kung saan maaari itong sumabog anumang oras. Mapanganib ang ganitong bulkan. Maaari itong sumabog at magbuga ng kumukulong putik at abo. Halimbawa nito ay ang bulkang Pinatubo.
• Burol — higit na mas mababa ito kaysa bundok at ang halimbawa nito ay ang tanyag na Chocolate Hills ng Bohol sa Pilipinas. Pabilog ang hugis nito at tinutubuan ng mga luntiang damo sa panahon ng tag-ulan at kung tag-araw ay nagiging kulay tsokolate.
• Lambak (Valley) — isang kapatagan ngunit napaliligiran ng mga bundok. Marami ring mga produkto tulad ng gulay, tabako, mani, mais, at palay ang maaaring itanim dito.
• Talampas (Plateau) — patag na anyong lupa sa mataas na lugar. Maganda ring taniman dahil mataba ang lupa rito. Malamig at mahangin sa lugar na ito.
• Tangway(Peninsula) — isang pahaba at naka-usling anyong lupang na halos napalilibutan ng tubig.
• Baybayin (coast/seashore)— bahagi ng lupa na malapit sa tabing dagat
• Bulubundukin (mountain ridges)matataa at matatrik na bundok na magkakadikit
• Pulo — mga lupain na napalilibutan ng tubig.
• Yungib — mga likas na butas na may sapat na laki at lawak na maaaring pasukin ng tao at hayop.

Anyong tubig

batis
b´atis n. stream, creek,

look
lo´ok n. bay, gulf

lawa
l´awa' n. lake, pool, lagoon

bukal,
a small stream of water coming from the earth: spring

talon
tal´on n. waterfall

sapa
s´apa' n. brook, creek, stream


TERMS FROM THE PHILIPPINE REVOLUTION
1. Cavite Mutiny - Filipino soldiers in the fort of San Felipe in Cavite rose in mutiny under the leadership of Sergeant La Madrid. The cause was the abolition of some privileges of the Filipinos. GOMBURZA were arrested and killed because of the suspicion that they were involved in the said mutiny.
2. El Filibusterismo - Rizal's second novel, published in 1891 in Belgium, with the financial support of Valentin Ventura, who lent him the money to print the book. Rizal dedicated this book to Gomburza, the three martyr-priests. This is a political novel in which Rizal predicted the coming of the revolution.
3. Insulares - Spaniards born in the Philippines.
4. Kalayaan - Newspaper of the Katipunan, which first came out on January 18,1896, with Emilio Jacinto as editor.
5. Katipunan - The secret revolutionary movement founded by Andres Bonifacio on July 7,1892 in Tondo,Manila. It means KATAASTAASAN KAGALANG-GALANG NA KATIPUNAN NANG MGA ANAK NG BAYAN. It laid down three fundamental objectives: Political,Moral and Civic. The political aim consisted in working for the separation of the Philippines from Spain. The moral objective focused on the teaching of good manners, hygiene, good morals and attacking obscurantism,religious,fanatism, and weaknesses of character. The civic aim revolved around the principle of self-help and the defense of the poor and the oppressed.
6. La Liga Filipina - Founded by Rizal on July 3,1892, in Tondo, Manila, its aims were:
o to unite the whole archipelago into one compact,vigorous, and homogenous body;
o mutual protection in every want and necessity;
o defense against all violence and injustice;
o encouragement of instruction,agriculture, and commerce; and
o study and application of reforms.
7. La Solidaridad - Organ of the Reform Movement in Spain, with Graciano Lopez-Jaena as its first editor. Its first issue came out on February 15,1889. Its aim was to gather, to collect liberal ideas which were daily exposed in the camp of politics, in the field of science, arts, letters, commerce, agriculture, and industry. Known as Sol to the propagandists, it became the mouthpiece of the Filipinos in Spain.
8. Magdalo - One faction of the Katipunan in Cavite, led by Baldomero Aguinaldo, with headquarters in Kawit,Cavite.
9. Magdiwang - The other Katipunan faction in Cavite, led by Mariano Alvarez, with headquarters in Noveleta, Cavite.
10. Noli Me Tangere - Rizal's masterpiece, published in 1887. This is a sociohistorical novel based on facts that Rizal gathered while in the Philippines. It is a novel, but not fiction. The novel gained popularity immediately, but the Spanish authorities, especially the friars whom Rizal ridiculed in the novel, prohibited its reading.
11. Pact of Biak-na-Bato - Agreement made between the Filipinos and the Spaniards, mediated by Pedro Paterno, wherein Aguinaldo and his companions would go into voluntary exile in Hong Kong while Governor Gen. Primo de Rivera would pay cash money to the rebels.
12. Palabra de Honor - Word of honor, or keeping one's promises.
13. Peninsulares - Spaniards born in Spain.
14. Spolarium - The most famous painting of Juan Luna.
15. The True Decalogue - A political tract written by Apolinario Mabini which became the bible of the Filipino rebels.
16. Thomasites - American teachers who came to the Philippines in 1901 to teach English to the Filipinos. The first batch of these teachers arrived aboard the American ship Thomas, hence, they were called Thomasites.

 latitud –mga pahalang na linya sa mapa o globo.
 Ang latitud ang nagbibigay ng lokasyong hilaga o timog ng ekwador.
 Ito rin ang mga linyang ginagamit upang tukuyin ang klima sa isang bahagi ng mundo.
 Mayroong 3 pangunahing latitud ang globo:
 Ekwador (0)
 Tropiko ng Kanser (23.5)
 Tropiko ng Kaprikorn (23.5)

 longhitud –mga pababang linya sa mapa o globo.
 Ito ang nagbibigay direksyon sa silangan o kanluran.
 Ang mga longhitud ang ginagamit upang tukuyin ang oras sa bawat bahagi ng mundo.
 Ang bawat longhitud na isang digri ang layo ay may distansiyang 111.32 km.
 Sa mga polo nagtatagpo ang mga meridian. Bawat digri ng longhitud ay nahahati sa 60 minuto.

 Ang Pilipinas ay nasa pagitan ng 4’23 at 21’30 hilagang latitud at 116’00 at 127’00 silangang longhitud.
 Ang Pilipinas ay bansang tropikal.
 2 Uri ng Panahon
 Tag-init: Abril, Mayo at Hunyo; Tag-ulan: Hunyo- Disyembre
 El Nino at La Nina, Global Warming

 Dalawang direksyon ng hanging umiihip sa Pilipinas
 Habagat –mula Timog-Kanluran, Hunyo-Oktubre
 Amihan –mula Hilagang-Silangan, Disyembre-Marso


1)prime meridian at

2) international date line



. ang limang guhit sa guhit latitud ay

1)kabilugang antarctic

2)tropiko ng kapricorn

3)ekwador = ekwador o equator ay isang kathang-isip na bilog na ginuguhit sa palibot ng isang planeta (o ibang astronomikal na bagay) sa layong kalahati sa pagitan ng mga dulo ng mundo (pole). Hinahati ng ekwador ang planeta sa Hilagang Hemisperyo at Katimogang Hemisperyo. Ang latitud ng ekwador ay, sa kahulugan, 0°. Nasa 40,075.0 km, o 24,901.5 milya ang haba ng ekwador ng daigdig.


4)tropiko ng kanser

5)kabilugang arctic



Sangay ng gobyerno sa Pilipinas
1. ehekutibo (executive) - kinabibilangan ng pangulo, pangalawang pangulo, at mga kagawaran at ahensiya ng pamahalaan

2. lehislatibo (legistlative) - kinabibilangan ng mababa at mataas na kapulungan (kongreso at senado)

3. hudisyal (judicial) - kinabibilangan ng korte suprema (mga punong mahistrado) at iba pang mga korte at mga hukom nito. Kilalarin sa tawag n mahistrado.


MGA URI NG PAMAHALAAN........
MONARKIYA- kapag iisa lang ang may hawak ng pamahalaan. ang pamunuan ay naipamamana sa mga anak.

CONSTITUTIONAL MONARCHI- pinamumunuan ito ng hari at reyna ngunit ang kapangyarihan ay itinakda ng konstitusyon.

ABSOLUTE MONARCHY- maihahalintulad sa isang diktator siya ang tanging may kapangyarihang pampamahalaan.

ARISTOKRASYA- ang kapangyarihan ay hawak ng ilang mayaman o matalinong pangkat.

OLIGARKYA- ang kapangyarihan ay hawak ng ilang mayaman o matalinong pangkat.

PLUTOKRASYA- ang kapangyarihan ay nasa pinaka mayamang o matalinong pangkat.

DIKTATORYAL- ang kapangyarihan ay nasa diktador.

TOTALITAYAN- ay isang pamahalaan na ang namumuno ay isang pangkat o grupo.

DEMOKRATIKO- ang kapangyarihan ng pamahalaan ay nasa tao,.

PAMPANGULUHAN- ang pinakamataas na pinuno any pangulo.

YUNITARYO- ang pinagmumulan ng mga ipinatutupad na gawain ay ang sentral o pambansang pamahalaan.

PEDERAL- ang kapangyarihan ay nahahati sa dalawa pambansang nasyonal at pamahalaang lokal.

TEOKRASYA- kung saan kinikilala ang pinuno bilang panginoon at mga diwata o mga anito.

FEUDALISMO- pinamumunuan ng legal at militar, sinusunod na batas ay militar.

KOMUNISTA- pamahalaan kung saan isang partido lamang ang sistema at ang pagkakaroon ng pantay- pantay sa lahat.

KRITORCHY- isang sistemang pulitekal kung saan tumatangap ng pantay-pantay sa hustisya sa lahat ng konseptong karapatang natural.

OESPOTIOMO- pinamumunuan ng isang autoridad.

COOPORATOCRACY- nag lalarawan ng pamumuno ng isang korporasyon.

KRYTOCRACY- pinamumunuan ng nmga hurado.

PARLAMENTARYO- pinaka mataas na pinuno ay punong ministro.

AUTHORITARIANISM- ang kapangyarihan ay kinokontrol sa pamamagitan ng pagsunod sa isang autoridad ng estado o orginasyon.




Three of the most significant imaginary lines running across the surface of the earth are the equator, the Tropic of Cancer, and the Tropic of Capricorn. While the equator is the longest line of latitude on the earth (the line where the earth is widest in an east-west direction), the tropics are based on the sun's position in relation to the earth at two points of the year.

The equator is located at zero degrees latitude. The equator divides the planet into the Northern and Southern Hemispheres.
The Tropic of Cancer and the Tropic of Capricorn each lie at 23.5 degrees latitude. The Tropic of Cancer is located at 23.5° North of the equator and runs through Mexico, the Bahamas, Egypt, Saudi Arabia, India, and southern China. The Tropic of Capricorn lies at 23.5° South of the equator and runs through Australia, Chile, southern Brazil (Brazil is the only country that passes through both the equator and a tropic), and northern South Africa.
The tropics are the two lines where the sun is directly overhead at noon on the two solstices - near June and December 21.
The sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of Cancer on June 21 (the beginning of summer in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of winter in the Southern Hemisphere) and
the sun is directly overhead at noon on the Tropic of Capricorn on December 21 (the beginning of winter in the Northern Hemisphere and the beginning of summer in the Southern Hemisphere).
The area bounded by the Tropic of Cancer on the north and Tropic of Capricorn on the south is known as the "tropics." This area does not experience seasons because the sun is always high in the sky. Only higher latitudes, north of the Tropic of Cancer and south of the Tropic of Capricorn, experience significant seasonal variation in climate.
While the equator divides the earth into Northern and Southern Hemispheres, it is the Prime Meridian at zero degrees longitude and the line of longitude opposite the Prime Meridian (near the International Date Line) at 180 degrees longitude that divides the earth into the Eastern and Western Hemispheres. The Eastern Hemisphere consists of Europe, Africa, Asia, and Australia while the Western Hemisphere includes North and South America. Some geographers place the boundaries between the hemispheres at 20° West and 160° East so as to not run through Europe and Africa.

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